Porto to Lisbon Atlantic Ride Trip Notes

Ways to Travel:
Guided Group, Premium Adventure
Destinations:
Portugal
Programmes:
Cycling
Trip Code:
MEO
Activity Rating - Leisurely/Moderate
Leisurely / Moderate

You are reasonably fit, enjoy the outdoors and are looking for some exercise. Some previous experience is preferable for activity based trips.

8 Days Flight Inclusive
8 Days Land only
16 Min age

Trip Overview

Blessed with sun-kissed beaches, colourful and vibrant fishing villages and scenic routes through pine forests and dunes, the Atlantic Coast of Portugal offers some fantastic cycling opportunities. This tour starts in Porto, a UNESCO World Heritage city and best European City Destination in 2013, 2014, and again for 2017. The itinerary follows easy and mainly flat cycling trails along the stunning coastline, with stops in different villages and towns for a full immersion in the relaxed Portuguese way of life. Highlights include a scenic ride through the dunes of the Sao Jacinto Natural Reserve and an overnight in the picture-perfect fortified village of Obidos. After a week of gentle riding and plenty of free time to enjoy some of the best beaches and restaurants of Portugal, a full day is dedicated to the visit of Lisbon, one of the most charming capital cities of Europe.

At a Glance

  • 7 nights 4-star hotels, all en suite 
  • 8 days land only / flight inclusive
  • 5 days cycling with full vehicle support (limited seats)
  • Group normally 6‐16, plus leader. Min age 16 yrs
  • 90% tarmac roads and cycle paths, 10% unpaved trails
  • Mix of flat riding and gentle undulations throughout
  • Local bike hire included
  • E-bike hire available on request

Trip Highlights

  • Discover Lisbon and Porto, the two main cities of Portugal
  • Stay in premium accommodation and try delicious local cuisine
  • Enjoy gentle coastal rides and free time to relax by the sea

Is This Trip for You?

This trip is classified as Road. Average daily distance: 60km (37 miles) No. of days cycling: 5

We use mainly cycle paths and quiet roads where possible. The cycling itinerary is very relaxed and the days are broken up into short sections to allow time to see the towns and attractions along the way.

The first three rides are shorter, mainly flat and easy and on Day 4 the ride is longer and more undulating. The ride on day 6 has the most ascent as the terrain changes, but the pace will be slow and with plenty of coffee and cake stops.  A support vehicle (with limited seats) is available throughout the trip, it will not be able to follow the group at all times but it will meet you at the end of cycle paths and at junctions to give route directions and allow access to any items you don’t wish to carry on the bike.

Activity Level: 2 (Leisurely/Moderate). Please see the introductory pages of the cycling brochure or our website for more important information on classification and grading. If you have any queries about the difficulty of the trip please do not hesitate to call us.

Group

The group will generally be between 6 and 16 people. There will be a local cycling leader and an assistant leader driving the support vehicle.

Adult min age:
16
Min group size:
5
Max group size:
16

Itinerary

Land Only

Start City:
Porto
End City:
Lisbon

Land Only Itinerary

  • Day 1

    Start Porto; afternoon orientation tour and guided wine tasting at a Port wine cellar.

    Start in Porto. Time permitting, your leader will arrange a short orientiation tour in the historic centre. Porto is a UNESCO World Heritage city and a real historic jewel with more than 150 listed monuments. There is plenty to see and for this reason we recommend travelling a day earlier if you are interested to explore more of its vibrant centre. Before dinner, we will enjoy a guided visit and wine tasting at a traditional Port wine cellar. Overnight at the central Porto Trindade Hotel or similar.

    Meals included:
    Dinner
  • Day 2

    Gentle coastal ride to the seaside town of Furadouro, renowned for its excellent fish. Free time to explore the lively town or relax at the beach.

    This morning we leave the hustle and bustle of the city behind and immerse ourselves in the more peaceful atmosphere of the Atlantic shore. Starting from Porto, we will ride along the Douro River until its estuary. We then follow the coast, mostly on cycling paths, enjoying some inspiring views of beautiful sandy beaches along the way. During this ride there will be plenty of opportunities to stop for drinks or snacks in traditional Portuguese cafes, right by the Atlantic Ocean! After following a cycling path which crosses a pine tree forest, we reach lively Furadouro, a seaside town renowned for its excellent fish. Free time for a swim (seasonal), relax in the hotel's spa or enjoy a deserved drink in one of the several cafes and restaurants in town. Overnight at Furadouro Boutique Hotel Beach & Spa or similar.


    Meals included:
    Breakfast
    Distance covered: 41 km / 25 miles
  • Day 3

    Cycle to Mira via the protected Natural Reserve of the São Jacinto dunes; en route visit to the pretty coastal town of Costa Nova.

    Today's ride follows the Aveiro lagoon and the nature reserve of Sao Jacinto, one of Europe's last remaining untouched coastal marshland and habitat of numerous bird species. We pedal through a scenery of sandy beaches, marshland and rolling dunes peppered with grasses and creepers. This is home to a plethora of birds, insects, small animals and unusual flowers and plants. After a short transfer by ferry, we leave the lagoon and continue cycling to the small town of Costa Nova, a picturesque village characterised by multi-coloured striped houses. Our ride ends in the seaside town of Mira, known for its infinitely long beach rated as one of the best in Portugal. Overnight at Macarico Beach Hotel or similar.

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
    Distance covered: 55 km / 34 miles
  • Day 4

    Follow the Portuguese silver coast and ride to Figuera da Foz through a peaceful pine forest.

    Today's ride takes us through one of the biggest dune systems in the area covered in a scenic pine tree forest. The route is mainly flat and the roads quiet and peaceful making the cycling very pleasant and relaxing. We aim to arrive in the lively town of Figuera da Foz in the early afternoon. The rest of the day is free to explore the town of Figuera da Foz and its extensive beach (nicknamed 'Rainha das Praias' - Queen of beaches) - there are lots of lovely cafes and bars to enjoy a pre-dinner drink, and some excellent restaurants. Overnight at Universal Boutique Hotel or similar.

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
    Distance covered: 59 km / 36 miles
  • Day 5

    Coastal ride to the village of Sao Pedro do Moel; free time to relax by the beach or explore the town.

    Today we enter the Portuguese silver coast and ride a cycleway that follows the Estrada Atlântica (Atlantic Road). We’ll be riding mainly through a vast pine forest, which was originally planted in the 15th Century with the aim of supplying naval construction during the Portuguese discoveries. We reach the picturesque town of São Pedro de Moel in the afternoon, and enjoy some time to relax at the beach or at the comfortable hotel with sea-view. Overnight at Mar & Sol Hotel or similar.

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
    Distance covered: 64 km / 40 miles
  • Day 6

    Pedal to the famous town of Nazare', where some of the highest waves in the world are recorded annually; continue to Óbidos, a stunning fortified mediaeval village.

    Our last rewarding ride take us all the way to Obidos, a charming small fortified town which resembles a suggestive medieval film set. It has been carefully preserved by its inhabitants who have been taking careful pride in maintaining the architectural image of the village characterised by narrow winding streets and white-washed houses. En route we also make a stop in Nazaré, one of the most famous fishing town in Portugal. Here fisherwomen still wear seven colourful layers of skirts, as well as wooden clogs and a traditional black headscarf. There will be the opportunity to enjoy some spectacular ocean views from the popular panoramic terrace. It was in Nazare's Praia Norte that the world record for the largest wave ever surfed was set, an estimated 30m high! Overnight at Josefa d’Obidos Hotel or similar.

    Cycle approx. 60km

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
    Distance covered: 63 km / 39 miles
  • Day 7

    Private transfer to Lisbon. Free day for individual sightseeing and optional Fado dinner.

    A morning private transfer (approx. 1hr) takes us to the great capital city of Lisbon; here we enjoy a full free day for independent sightseeing. Begin with the two landmark monuments, the Tower of Belém and the Monastery of Jerónimos, both of which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage status. For some great views, head up the Monument to the Discoveries and in the afternoon consider catching one of the traditional yellow trams for a panoramic ride through old Lisbon and conclude the trip with an enjoyable Portuguese dinner accompanied by traditional Fado music (optional). Overnight at Turim Europa Hotel or similar.

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
  • Day 8

    End Lisbon.

    End Lisbon

    Meals included:
    Breakfast

Accommodation

Premium Hotels

We use a selection of comfortable 4-star hotels. All hotels are high quality and individual and have been selected for their location, comfort and character. All rooms are en suite and some hotels have a swimming pool or a sea view.

Examples of hotels used:

Porto: Porto Trindade Hotel. 4-star Central location, modern and comfortable

Ovar: Furadouro Boutique Hotel Beach & Spa. 4-star, beach front hotel with a contemporary design

Praia de Mira: Maçarico Beach Hotel. 4-star, located in front of the Mira beach with a contemporary design with an incredible rooftop pool

Figuera da Foz: Universal Boutique Hotel. 4-star, charming style, central and beach side location

Sao Pedro do Moel: Mar & Sol Hotel. 4-star, seafront location, modern style, spa and rooftop deck

Obidos: Josefa d’Obidos Hotel. 4-star, charming small hotel, convenient location in the old town, recently refurbished

Lisbon: Turim Europa Hotel. 4-star, small hotel, convenient location, comfortable

Please note some hotels might change on certain departures. For more up-to-date information about the hotels used, please contact our Customer Operations Team closer to your travel date.

Single supplement from 589.00 CAD

Food & Transport

Eating & Drinking

All breakfasts, 1 wine tasting and 1 dinner included.

A typical hotel breakfast consists of toast/bread with jam, or honey, cheese and ham, served with coffee, tea, milk, orange juice, fruit, cake and yoghurt. Eggs are usually available and there are frequently other cooked options; the breakfasts on this trip are always plentiful and perfect to set us up for a day of cycling.

Portuguese people are very proud of their cuisine, and the deliciously fresh seafood is a real highlight. You will find fresh fish on most menus, usually sardines, sea bream, hake, sea bass and sole, cooked in a variety of ways.

Bacalhau (cured codfish) is a national dish although it can vary depending on the region - there are up to 365 recipes to cook it! Caldo Verde (green soup) is made with potatoes, olive oil and salt, sometimes with garlic and onion, and is typical in the northern region of Portugal.

For meat lovers the barrosã meat (steak) is often served grilled and roasted just to its naturally delicious flavour. 'Francesinha' is an iconic dish originating from Porto and involves layers of different meats (usually beef, ham, grilled pork, linguiça (smoke cured pork sausage) and sausage), between two slices of bread, covered by melted cheese and immersed in a spicy beer and tomato sauce, often topped with a fried egg and surrounded by chips. It is not for the faint hearted!

To drink you will find plenty of the local Sagres and Superbock beer. Vinho Verde is available from the supermarket and directly from the producers. It is a young, medium alcohol white wine with an almost carbonated quality. Port needs no introduction and a glass (or two) of the fortified wine will generally follow a hearty Portuguese meal!

There are an incredible amount of different desserts available and if you have a sweet tooth it will be possible to try a different one each day! Local favourites include bolo de bolacha (cookie cake), leite creme (cream eggs and sugar), pao de lo (sponge cake made with lots of eggs), arroz doce (a traditional rice pudding) and of course, the famous pastel de nata, which you will find at most cafes on your route!

Transportation

Transfers to and from the airport will be by private vehicle (normally minibus). Whilst cycling the vehicle will carry your baggage and be on hand with assistance or if you choose to 'sit out' a section of the ride (seats are limited). A guide cycles with the group.

Weather & Seasonality

Weather Information

Porto and Lisbon have a temperate maritime climate with a strong Mediterranean influence. The climate here is long, warm summers and mild winters, with most rain falling in the winter months, but possible in all other months. Seasons are marked, with pleasant temperatures in the spring, in the summer and in the autumn. Heat waves can push up temperatures between mid June and September.

Coastal areas of Portugal can be known to be quite windy, but we are fortunate that this tends to be from north to south; which gives us an extra push whilst cycling!

Weather Charts

Joining Instructions

Travelling flight inclusive from London: 8 days

The group flight from London is a daytime flight departing on Day 1 of the itinerary.

Flights from London

We normally use the scheduled services of TAP (depending on availability). As flight timings and schedules change regularly we recommend you call one of our specialist sales staff or your agent to confirm up‐to‐date timings. Please note timings may change at a later date and cannot be confirmed until approximately two weeks before departure.

Travelling land only: 8 days starting in Porto and ending in Lisbon

Your trip normally starts at our accommodation in Porto in the afternoon of Day 1 of the itinerary. Details of how to reach the start point are provided in the Final Joining Instructions ‐ sent approximately two weeks before departure.

Regional Flights

The Flight Inclusive price is based on a London departure, but we are happy to tailor this to your local or regional airport. Please ask about flights from local or regional airports.

If booking regional flights other than with Exodus, you must allow a minimum connecting time (in addition to the international check-in time) of 1 hour at Gatwick, and 1.5 hours at Heathrow; this is longer than the official minimum, but baggage handling is known to be subject to delays.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers will be sent to you as part of our Final Joining Instructions. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier please contact our office or your travel agent.

Transfers Details

Airport transfers are included for those on the group flights. 

If you require airport transfers, you may (by prior arrangement only) be able to join the group transfer. Transfers are arranged to coincide with the arrival time of the group flight - please check the group flight details 2 weeks before departure. If you do not take this transfer, or miss it, you must make your own way to the joining point at your own expense.

The start hotel is located approximately 15km from Porto airport. If you are planning to make your own way by public transport, take the metro (line E) and stop at the station Trindade, which is only 150m from the hotel. The journey takes approximately 30 minutes and the cost of a single ticket is approx. €2.

Location start:
Porto
Location end:
Lisbon

What to Take

Essential Equipment

Gloves and shorts

spare inner tube (unless hiring a bike)

waterproof jacket

sun cream and lip salve

sunglasses/eye protection

warm jumper or jacket for evenings

small daysack

favourite energy snacks

mosquito repellent

cycling helmet (compulsory on this trip)

Optional Equipment

Swimming costume and beach towel

Equipment Hire

Local Bike Details: Specialized Rockhopper mountain bikes with front suspension, pannier and handlebar bags.

Discount for bringing your own bike: £90.

A quality local hire bike is now included in the overall price of our cycling holidays. At the time of booking we will take your height in order to reserve equipment. There may on occasions be insufficient bikes available in the correct size; we will endeavour to find suitable alternative equipment but this cannot be guaranteed. We will tell you before you book whether suitably sized bikes are available.

Conditions

1. The equipment remains the property of the supplier and you may not sell, hire out or part possession with the equipment.

2. You must not misuse the equipment and must return it in the same condition as when received (ordinary wear and tear excepted). The supplier is entitled to charge for any damage caused to the equipment during the period of hire.

3. You must ensure that the equipment is adequately secured when not in use. In the event of the equipment being lost or stolen, you may be liable for the replacement value of the equipment

4. You must not use the equipment whilst under the influence of drink or drugs and should immediately notify the Supplier in the event of breakdown or loss.

Bringing Your Own Bike

If you prefer the familiarity of your own bike, you may of course bring it along. Please advise us at the time of booking and you will receive a discount off the price of the holiday, as specified above. You will be responsible for any extra baggage charges, please speak to our Sales team for individual airline fees. Any clients bringing their own bike should ensure they have adequate cover for loss, damage or theft under their travel, home contents or a specialist insurance policy. If Exodus is confident that we have taken all reasonable care to ensure the safety of your bike, in the rare event of loss, damage or theft you will need to claim under your own insurance policy.

Extra Bike Bits

You may like to bring your own pedals and saddle (excluding the seat post) or gel saddle cover to fit to the hire bikes. We encourage this, if it is your preference. However, please note that you are responsible for your own equipment, and removing your saddle/pedals at the end of the trip. We cannot guarantee the return of any bike parts left behind.

Exodus Policy on Cycling Helmets

Wearing a helmet is mandatory for anyone taking part in any guided Exodus cycling holiday. Group members must bring their own helmets, as they are not available for hire, even if they are hiring a bike from Exodus.

For self-guided cycling holidays wearing a helmet is highly recommended. Customers who choose to ignore our advice do so entirely at their own risk and on the understanding that it may affect the validity of their travel insurance. It should also be noted that in some countries we travel to wearing a helmet is already a legal requirement.

Cycling of all kinds has its dangers and accidents can happen from time to time. Please ensure that you are properly prepared for the riding you are going to undertake.

Recommended Cycling Clothing

Padded cycling shorts (with loose 'over-shorts' where recommended), breathable clothing, and a lightweight waterproof/windproof top. Shoes with relatively stiff soles are better for biking, but are not essential unless you are cycling long distances. Most people want to carry certain items with them during the day while cycling, for this we recommend a large bum-bag or small close-fitting daysack.

E-Bikes Available

Electric bikes offer all the thrills and healthy exercise of a regular bike, but with one crucial difference - power! A tiny electric motor (capped at 25mph) assists your pedalling, allowing you to make molehills out of mountains. Cycle further, see more, have more fun. They are just perfect if you want to try a trip with companions of differing fitness level - or a trip at a slightly harder grade - and want to know there’s a bit of motor power available if you need it.

Practical Information

Passport

Portugal

All nationalities require a full passport that must be valid beyond the intended length of stay. It is your responsibility to have the correct personal documents and to obtain your own visa, if one is necessary, in accordance with the regulations of the country you are to visit. The information offered below is to help you with that process. We are not responsible for the actions of local immigration and customs officials, whether at points of entry or otherwise, and any subsequent effects.

Certain European nationalities may be able to travel within Europe on their national identity card. Check carefully with the relevant authorities if you intend to do this.

Visa

Portugal

No visa required for British passport holders.

Visa regulations can change without notice: please check the current regulations in good time to obtain a visa if one is required.

There are no specific health risks on this trip.

Vaccination

Portugal

There are no specific health risks.

Travel health can often be something people forget about before going away, but a little preparation and knowledge can go a long way to help you stay fit and healthy while abroad.

The above information can change at short notice; as we are not qualified to answer all your questions about travel health we strongly recommend you contact your Medical Professional or a Travel Health Clinic at least 8 weeks prior to departure for up-to-date information. Please note: vaccinations that are routinely recommended to residents of the UK, North America or Australasia are not considered to form part of the travel health advice, and you should ensure these are kept up to date where necessary.

For additional information please visit: https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/countries

Insurance - are you adequately covered?

It is a condition of joining any of our holidays that you must be fully insured against medical and personal accident risks (to include repatriation costs and air ambulance or helicopter rescue services where appropriate). On arrival in destination for your trip, you will be asked to present details to your leader or local representative of your policy.

If you are resident in the UK we strongly recommend the Exodus travel insurance policy, this is specifically designed to cover all activities on your trip. If arranging your own policy please ensure that you are covered for all activities that are part of the trip, optional activities that you intend to take part in and/or on high altitude itineraries, that you are covered up to the maximum altitude of the trip.

If you are a UK citizen and travelling in Europe you should obtain the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) from your Post Office. This gives you medical care at a reduced cost, and some cases for free, in many European countries, but should not be considered a substitute for adequate insurance.

Local Time

Portugal's Timezone:
Europe/Lisbon WEST (GMT +01:00)

Electricity

Portugal's Electricity:

European 2-pin plug. 

Standard European 2-pin adapter required.

Money

Portugal's Currency

The national currency of Portugal is the Euro (EUR), with an exchange rate at the time of publication of approximately 1.2 to the UK£ and 0.9 to the US$.

Exchange rates are correct at the time of publication.

ATM Availability

ATMs are available in most of the towns we visit, although you may also like to take some Euros with you to facilitate the first few days of your trip. Cash is usually preferred in small restaurants, cafes and shops.

Extra Expenses & Spending Money

Allow €10-15 for lunch (taken in a local café or picnic, depending on the cycling route and timings). You will also need some extra cash for drinks or ice creams in cafés or bars during the day. Typically a beer or coffee will cost around €1.5 and a reasonable bottle of wine at dinner about €8. The average price for dinner is also very reasonable and ranges from €15-25 depending on the level of restaurant chosen.

Tipping

Our local staff are paid well and fairly for their work with Exodus, however most of our clients wish to give a tip to their guides and in appreciation of their help and friendliness. This, of course, is in no way compulsory and depends on the service received. If you feel you would like to leave a tip, as a guide we would suggest a total of approximately €30 per person (€20 for the leader and €10 shared between the other staff where appropriate).

Portugal

Responsible Tourism

At Exodus we believe in the power of Responsible Travel.

Every time we travel, we are part of a global movement that creates jobs, builds more sustainable societies, encourages cultural understanding and safeguards common natural and cultural heritage. To learn more about what Responsible Travel means to Exodus click here… 

Exodus Community

Join the Exodus online community

Don't forget to visit the Community area on our website. You can view the range of Exodus videos and podcasts, read trip write-ups which have featured in the national media and take advantage of some special deals on travel gear and equipment.

In the Community Travel Forum you'll find the Departure Lounge where you can discuss your trip with fellow travellers before you depart. When you get back from your holiday remember to upload your images to the relevant trip page on our website. This helps other people see what our holidays are really like and you'll be entered automatically into our monthly photo competition.

To make full use of the Community you'll need to join My Exodus. It's free, registration is simple and easy, so what are you waiting for?

Important Information

On all guided trips

Although our leaders are well trained to deal with different capabilities, if they have any concerns about someone’s ability to safely partake in an activity, or their impact on other people’s enjoyment, we authorise them to take necessary action which, in some circumstances, may involve asking someone to miss that activity.

Although rarely enforced, by booking this trip you agree to section 16 of our Booking Conditions which clearly states that our leaders have the authority to do this. In these circumstances we will ensure anyone sitting out is safely provided for and offered alternative options where possible. Refunds will not be provided for activities missed and customers may be liable for additional costs incurred.

On all trips

In booking this trip you should be confident in your ability to participate in all activities described in these Trip Notes. If you have any doubt about your suitability you should call the Exodus office and ask to speak to one of the experts on this itinerary.

In an emergency, please contact our 24 hour out of hours service on +44 (0) 844 326 7041.

Every time that you travel abroad you should take the time to read the warnings in the essential information in the brochure.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers, and details of how to reach the start point, will be sent to you approximately 2 to 3 weeks prior to departure. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier please contact our office or your travel agent.

The information in these Trip Notes is given in good faith. Where differences exist between the Trip Notes and our current brochure or website, the Trip Notes supersede the brochure and website. All holidays can be subject to unexpected changes; in order to enjoy them you should be prepared to be flexible where necessary. Occasionally, as stated in our brochure, it may not be possible to follow the itinerary as planned. This may be for a variety of reasons - climatic, political, physical or other. In these circumstances we will make the best possible alternative arrangements that maintain the integrity of the original itinerary.

As fuel prices, airport taxes and exchange rates fluctuate, and airlines manage their rates to match demand, it is proving harder than ever to guarantee our Flight Inclusive prices. Although we endeavour to keep our website as accurate as possible, daily fluctuations mean that our Flight Inclusive price may be out of date. For accurate prices we recommend that you contact one of our Travel Experts, or your Travel Agent.

TRAVEL AWARE –STAY SAFE & HEALTHY ABROAD

 

The Foreign & Commonwealth Office and the NHS have up-to-date advice on staying safe and healthy abroad. For more on security, local laws, plus passport and visa information, see https://travelaware.campaign.gov.uk/

Keep informed of current travel health news by visiting https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/

Advice can change so check regularly for updates.

For all latest travel information about your holiday, please visit our Travel Safety Advice page.

How to Book

1. Check availability

Go online to check availability, or contact us by phone or email.

2. Secure your place

You can provisionally hold a place on this trip, usually for between three and seven days.

3. Complete your booking and payment

When you're ready to book, go to www.exodus.co.uk for online booking, book over the phone or you can complete a booking form (available online or on request by calling us). We accept all major credit and debit cards, or you can pay be cheque. Book with confidence: Exodus is fully licensed and bonded as a tour operator. We hold Air Traffic Organisers Licence (ATOL) number 2582 issued and bonded with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). We are also bonded to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and we are members of the Federation of Tour Operators (FTO) and ABTA ‐ The Travel Association. This means you can book your Exodus holiday with confidence, as all monies paid to us for your trip are fully protected.

TRIP NOTE VALIDITY

These Trip Notes are valid from the "Current as" date on page one. They will occasionally be updated post booking and pre-departure; if there are any updates that significantly impact the inclusions or itinerary bookers will be written to separately. All customers will also receive a link to the most up-to-date version of the Trip Notes with their Final Joining Instructions pre-travel.